When Rachel saw that she had borne Yaakov no children, she became envious of her sister; and Rachel said to Yaakov, “Give me children, or I shall die.”
Jacob was incensed at Rachel, and said, “Can I take the place of God, who has denied you fruit of the womb?”
The Ibn Ezra explains the words: “Can I take the place of God?” in this way:
It is possible that Jacob prayed on behalf of Rachel but the time for the listening of his prayer on her behalf had not yet arrived.
ויתכן שהתפלל ולא הגיע עת שמוע תפלתו (Ibn Ezra)
This raises questions for me about how prayer works.
What does this mean לא הגיע עת שמוע תפלתו?
He does not say his tefillah was rejected. It just is that he time of listening to his tefillah did not yet arrive.
וַתֵּ֣רֶא רָחֵ֗ל כִּ֣י לֹ֤א יָֽלְדָה֙ לְיַעֲקֹ֔ב וַתְּקַנֵּ֥א רָחֵ֖ל בַּאֲחֹתָ֑הּ וַתֹּ֤אמֶר אֶֽל־יַעֲקֹב֙ הָֽבָה־לִּ֣י בָנִ֔ים וְאִם־אַ֖יִן מֵתָ֥ה אָנֹֽכִי׃
 Bereishis, 30:1
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